Lottery Advertising and the Public Interest
The lottery is a game of chance in which participants purchase numbered tickets for the opportunity to win cash prizes. Prizes are determined by drawing lots from a pool of funds after expenses (including profits for the promoter) and taxes or other revenue have been deducted. Many states, including the United States, have lotteries.
Making decisions and determining fates by casting lots has a long record in human history, including several instances in the Bible. In Europe, however, lotteries in the modern sense of the word first appeared in the 1500s, with towns attempting to raise money for civic repairs. In the 17th century, Louis XIV’s attempt to disperse his fortune among his friends led to public concern and eventually to the suppression of all but a few national lotteries.
Today, millions of people play state-sponsored lotteries every week, contributing billions to the economy. But while some may win a few dollars, most lose. And the majority of players do not view their participation in the lottery as gambling. Instead, they see it as an activity that provides a way to improve their lives or even save them from poverty.
Lottery ads are filled with messages that tell players that they are helping their state and their children, and that their small investment will make the world a better place. They also emphasize that playing the lottery is legal, safe and fun. These messages are designed to persuade people to buy tickets and become regular players. But what if these claims are misleading?
In addition to promoting a form of gambling, lottery advertising is often aimed at specific constituencies, such as convenience store operators (who are the primary suppliers); lottery suppliers, who frequently contribute to state political campaigns; teachers (in states in which lottery revenues are earmarked for education), and state legislators. By cultivating these constituencies, the lottery industry can ensure that its message will reach a wide audience.
Given the underlying dynamics, it’s no wonder that state-sponsored lotteries are such a popular source of funding for governments. But while these activities are legal, do they serve the public interest? In particular, do they encourage problem gamblers, who can’t control their spending, and the poor, who often have trouble obtaining essential services?
Whether they are playing for a new car, a trip to Disneyworld or a brand-new home, lottery winners must deal with the fact that their odds of winning are very low. In fact, the average ticket has a one-in-a-million chance of winning the grand prize. But that doesn’t stop many people from purchasing a ticket each week, spending $50 or $100 a week. In some cases, these people have been playing for years. These people defy the stereotype of irrational lottery players. They go into the games clear-eyed about the odds and how the lottery works. They have “quote-unquote systems,” about lucky numbers, lucky stores and times of day to buy tickets. But, for the most part, they have come to the logical conclusion that the lottery is their last, best or only hope for a better life.